Sabtu, 19 Maret 2011

Paper presented in AsiaTEFL International Conference at Sanur Bali in 2008

The Application of Reader Response Approach toward Local Literature
 to Develop Students’ Critical Thinking and Cultural Awareness

By:
Rita Inderawati
Sriwijaya University Palembang

Introduction
Indonesia possesses many kinds of local literature that every region has its own literature. So far the local literature, especially adapted short stories and poems, was present in school curriculum as reading for enjoyment; it was presented as dessert. It was an observation conducted by Rudy (2001) that short stories were conventionally presented by teachers in the classrooms and intrinsically as well as extrinsically responded by students. The teachers asked the students to read, to answer the available questions that focus on intrinsic and extrinsic values, to summarize or to retell the short stories. This fact is also strengthened by the findings of most students of English education study program when they implemented teaching practice in schools. They found that students were reluctant and bored of reading literary works, and so were the teachers. The students were exhausted to read various kinds of literary works and explore them monotonously.  They just dug up the intrinsic and intrinsic values. Such exploration only sharpened their cognitive aspect.
Based on the Competence –Based Curriculum (CBC), the purpose of literature teaching is to sharpen students’ moral. Nevertheless, the teaching of literature so far sharpens the cognition but it blunts two other aspects, affective and psychomotor. It emphasizes on efferent stance; only intrinsic values are put forward. It is impossible to expect the moral to be promoted since the teaching has adopted cognitive aspects solely. Distinctly, such objective cannot be found in the new curricula, KTSP but in the background of the curriculum, it is stated that language learning has to facilitate students to familiarize their own culture and other cultures, to express their feeling and imagination (BNSP, 2006). Unluckily, it fails to translate the prominent roles of language in learning. The role is invisible in the standard of competency and the basic competence.
It is a fact that to find those main roles of language learning in English textbooks for students is difficult in term of literature context. Sudarwati and Grace, (2007:59) provide a local literature, Bandung Bondowoso and Roro Jongrang (the legend of Prambanan Temple) and a set of efferent questions as a reading material. The purpose of the questions is to identify whether students has read the story or not. Rudy (2000) complained that the students were only asked to identify the characters, characterization, the setting, and the theme, to summarize, and to retell by the teacher (also read Beach and Marshall, 1991:219). Consequently, the local literature contains culture perspective. In relation to culture, it is expected that it can develop cultural awareness in students. Meanwhile, it is hard to establish students’ critical thinking. How can they think critically if the questions posed do not stimulate them to think hard.
Furthermore, Rudy (2006) cited that literature as assumed by some experts has no contribution of promoting students’ language skills and only functioned as recitation subject matter. It seems that the four language skills can merely be promoted by language teaching. There is no significant difference in portion between literature presented at schools and taught at language education programs. This citation is illustrated by Moody (1971:3) that literature located in a very small and dark area in language education in developing countries. In Indonesia literature context, Harras (2003:303) reported his findings that literature must be separated from language teaching in order to make students have more time to read and appreciate literary works. The result of his survey research was criticized by Alwasilah (2002) that language and literature are under the umbrella of language arts, that they are not a dichotomy. As a comparison, language teaching at primary school up to high schools in some developed countries is under the same umbrella, language arts.
Other fact that forced literature into a corner and the students had no interest in studying it, even they hate the subject matter, is exemplified by Purves, et al (1990:174) when facing a national examination, a student wrote something on his answer sheet: “You have murdered Hamlet and Macbeth. What more do you want? My blood?” Another example they cite is that students were asked twenty-three questions on Macbeth in fifteen minutes, questions like, ”What does this word mean? What does the next line mean?” After class, the teacher was asked whether the students like the play. She responded, “I don’t know I haven’t time!” These two examples indicate that literature becomes a boring subject. Purves, et al., further, insist, “If recitation and term paper about literature are the only things to be taken into consideration by a curriculum, students may learn to dislike literature.” Ultimately, Rudy (2006:134) inferred that it is reasonable that the students are hazy to literature. They suffer from literature hazy syndrome.
The above phenomena are incompatible with the existence of literature in the curriculum. According to Purves, et al (1990:174):

Literature and the arts exist in the curriculum as a means for students to learn to express their emotions, their thoughts, and their imaginations as they enter into the experiences of the works they read and transliterate those experiences into film, talk, silence, writing, drama, pictures, or the like.

The statement pinpoints that not only does literature, but also the arts can free the imagination and help people order their worlds. In other words, there is no an imprisoned society with the freedom of imagination and personal order.
            This paper highlights reader response approach and its indicators and building critical thinking and cultural awareness by appreciating literary works. As a whole, it depicts the development of either students’ critical thinking or cultural awareness by applying reader response approach toward local literature.

Reader Response Approach and Its Indicators
Reader response approach emerged in literature theory in 1960. Rudy (2005) insists that the response focused on reader in reading literary works. In the response’s perspective, the creativity and productivity of the reader determine a text. Therefore, no response is totally regarded as precise response. According to Beach (1993:15) reader response came up to the surface as a strong reaction from readers in society to structuralism approach that highlighted the text per se and neglected the role of the reader. Nevertheless, the approach is still necessitated in the new paradigm since it is similar to one of the reader responses in term of describing. To conceive a story without recognizing the story’ structure is impossible.           
Beach and Marshall (1990:137) propose seven reader responses, namely: 1) describing, 2) explaining, 3) conceiving, 4) interpreting, 5) connecting, 6) engaging, and 7)   judging. These responses are classified into two groups; describing, conceiving, explaining, and interpreting refer to cognitive aspects and the others belong to affective ones. In term of describing, a reader (a student) restates the information that is provided in a literary text after reading it. It seems that the response is too simple, but in fact it entails a process of abstraction. Thus, to include a description of the story, the student has already decided what is important in it. And every student will have distinct description of the importance events. Such distinction can be a crucial point of initiating a discussion.
            Next, in explaining a character’s action, students are drawing on their conceptions of characters’ traits, beliefs, or goals to infer a reason for that action. In Weesner Irene, Goodnight, Felix fails to show up at Irene’s house due to his insecure. Therefore, students can initiate their explanation by expressing the reasons for his insecurity. It can be related to an alcoholic father that has hampered his ability to feel positive about himself or in social context he thinks that people like him never really succeed.

            Furthermore, when students conceive of the characters or settings in a text, they are moving beyond a description of information to a statement about its meaning. In Irene, Goodnight, for example the students can describe the fact that Felix is nervous in a particular situation.

            Meanwhile, in making interpretations, students can discuss what a literary text really cites. Interpretation involves generalization that implied by the text.
            In term of connecting, students may often connect their own prior reading experiences with the literary text. When reading Irene, Goodnight, the students may be reminded of their own awkward moments in conversing with members of the opposite sex. In relation to local literature, Siti Nurbaya, they can connect their own culture to the culture posed in the story. According to Rudy (2005) they can also connect the content of the story to their own experience or others, to films that they ever watched, to other story books that they ever read, to social life, and to religion.

            In engaging response, students are engaging with a story when they are articulating their personal emotional reaction or level of involvement with the story. The students often have difficulty expressing engagement because they are not consciously aware of how they are experiencing the text.

            Ultimately, students have to judge the story by pulling back from it to make evaluative statements about its characters, quality, values, author, and story line. The students can argue that the characters’ behavior was appropriate or inappropriate, rational or irrational, interesting or uninteresting, normal or abnormal, and well-written or not.

            Based on the above depiction of the responses, it can be established some guiding questions to facilitate students to appreciate aesthetically literary works by identifying indicators emerged in every response. From her previous studies about reader response strategies, Rudy had already developed   guiding questions since 2005. By conducting a research and development (R & D), the following is the guiding questions established in 2007, funded by The Directorate of Higher Education of Indonesia through a Competitive Research (Hibah Bersaing).

Table 1: Reader Response Indicators and the Illustration of Questions
No
Responses
Indicators
Illustrations
1
Describing
Character, characterization, setting, theme, style,
a.   What do you think of the character of the story? Is he/she good or bad?
b.   Where does the story happen? Do you like the setting? Why?
c.   Does the story tell about good things?
d.  Is the story reasonable? Is the style of the story communicative of figurative? Explain it.
e.   What event in the story do you think is very important? Why?
2
Engaging
Feeling, imagination, thought
a.   Can you feel what is felt by the character? What does he/she feel?
b.   Would you do the same thing if you were the character? Explain it.
c.   Can you imagine what happens? Explain it.
3
Conceiving
Reason
      Why is the character forbidden to do something?
4
Explaining
Character’s action,
agreement
a.   A character is extremely hated by someone but he/she keeps patient and obeys. What do you think of the character’s action?
b.   Do you agree or disagree of the bad action done by anyone to the character? Why?
5
Interpreting
Opinion
a.   In your point of view, what does the story talk about?

6
Connecting
Experience,
Other story,
Film,
Social life,
Culture,
Religion
a.   Do you have the same experience with the character? Your brother? Parents? Neighbor? Friend?
b.   Have you ever read book or watched film which is similar to the story read? Tell the story and connect it.
c.   Can you connect this story to social life? Culture? Religion? How do you connect it?
7
Judging
Story line,
Moral values,
The author
a.   Is the story interesting?
b.   Is the story valuable? What values do you get from reading the story?
c.   What do you think of the author?
           
Some other investigations about reader response strategies have been conducted.  Barr (1991) in his book Handbook of Reading Research put forward such inquiries. For instance, Hansen investigated engaging response that readers passively responded the optimistic poem and emotionally influenced their emotion and Shedd found that readers’ attitude affected their emotional involvement in engaging strategy that positive thinking readers to literary works indicate higher emotional involvement than those who have negative thinking. Other researchers that focused their research on that response as cited by Farrell and Squire (1990:180) are Chasser (1977), Golden and Guthrie (1986), and Hansson (1986).
Investigations on conceiving response are conducted by Beach and Wendler about college students’ understanding of characters’ behavior in their psychological aspects, while high school students comprehend it in term of physical aspects. Next, Beach investigated readers that connect their life experiences, Lipson found that reader connect the story to cultural perspective, and Beach and Harstle found that the readers connect the story to their own experiences and personalities. And there are many other investigations that focused on describing (Singer and Donlan, and Newkirk), explaining (Black and Seifert, and Bruce), interpreting (Hunt and Vipond, and Svennson), and judging (Parnell, Binkney).
            In Indonesian context, there are two investigations that have been done to finish doctoral program. Firstly, Mulyana (2000) conducted a research on the seven reader responses by applying those to teach Indonesian poetry to university students and the result was the responses can develop students’ appreciation to poetry. Unfortunately, the application of those responses was still vague since he focused profoundly to the principles and the condition of literature learning. Other investigation was conducted by Rudy (2005) to primary school students. The finding was that reader responses applied to short stories can develop students’ writing skill.
Critical Thinking and Cultural Awareness in Literary Appreciation
Critical thinking as defined in Wikipedia is a form of judgment, specifically purposeful and reflective judgment. Using critical thinking one makes a decision or solves the problem of judging what to believe or what to do, but does so in a reflective way. Critical thinking is an important and vital topic in modern education. All educators are interested in teaching critical thinking to their students. Many academic departments hope that its professors and instructors will become informed about the strategy of teaching critical thinking skills, identify areas in one's courses as the proper place to emphasize and teach critical thinking, and develop and use some problems in exams that test students' critical thinking skills.

According to Schafersman (1991):

Critical thinking means correct thinking in the pursuit of relevant and reliable knowledge about the world. Another way to describe it is reasonable, reflective, responsible, and skillful thinking that is focused on deciding what to believe or do. A person who thinks critically can ask appropriate questions, gather relevant information, efficiently and creatively sort through this information, reason logically from this information, and come to reliable and trustworthy conclusions about the world that enable one to live and act successfully in it. Critical thinking is not being able to process information well enough to know to stop for red lights or whether you received the correct change at the supermarket. Such low-order thinking, critical and useful though it may be, is sufficient only for personal survival; most individuals master this. True critical thinking is higher-order thinking, enabling a person to, for example, responsibly judge between political candidates, serve on a murder trial jury, evaluate society's need for nuclear power plants, and assess the consequences of global warming. Critical thinking enables an individual to be a responsible citizen who contributes to society, and not be merely a consumer of society's distractions.

Based on these definitions, it can be inferred that children are not born with the power to think critically, nor do they develop this ability naturally beyond survival-level thinking. Critical thinking is a learned ability that must be taught. Most individuals never learn it. Critical thinking cannot be taught reliably to students by peers or by most parents. Trained and knowledgable instructors are necessary to impart the proper information and skills, for instance math and science instructors have precisely this information and these skills.
In relation to literature circle, reader responses contribute to develop students’ critical thinking. As previously stated, four of the responses can enhance critical thinking since they are in the umbrella of cognitive domains; describing, explaining, conceiving, and interpreting and the other three: connecting, engaging, and judging, though they are included in affective domain, they can also be applied in sharpening critical thinking. It is a good suggestion that critical thinking must be trained to students. In this case, the students are expected to read local literature and then they appreciate the literary works by answering the guiding questions (see table 1). Rudy (2005) analyzed that reader responses has a tight correlation with basic operational system and inductive thinking model. The following table shows the relationship.


Table 2.
The Relationship among Reader Responses, Basic Operational,
 And Inductive Thinking

No
Reader Responses
Basic Operational
Inductive Thinking
1
Describing
Comparing
Describing
2
Engaging
Organizing
Categorizing
3
Interpreting
Hypothesizing
Hypothesizing
4
Explaining
Explaining
Explaining
5
Connecting
Classifying
Connecting
6
Conceiving
Summarizing
Predicting
7
Judging
Criticizing
Inferring
8
-
Identifying
Identifying
9
-
-
Investigating
Schafersman (1991) cites, “One can regard critical thinking as involving two aspects: a set of cognitive skills, intellectual standards, and traits of mind, 2 the disposition or intellectual commitment to use those structures to improve thinking and guide behavior.” This citation indicates that the effect of good cognitive skills can sharpen one’s behavior. It is also expected that by reading local literature and appreciating it by applying reader response, students’ critical thinking can be enhanced.
Furthermore, it discusses about cultural awareness in literary appreciation. Quappe and Cantatore (2008) initiate their theoretical paper by citing the following:
“A fish only discovers its need for water when it is no longer in it.
Our own culture is like water for the fish. It sustains us.
We live and breathe through it.”
Increasing cultural awareness means to see both the positive and negative aspects of cultural differences. Cultural diversity could be a source of problems, in particular when the organization needs people to think or act in a similar way. Diversity increases the level of complexity and confusion and makes agreement difficult to reach. On the other hand, cultural diversity becomes an advantage when the organization expands its solutions and its sense of identity, and begins to take different approaches to problem solving. Diversity in this case creates valuable new skills and behaviors.


Quappe and Cantatore (2008) state:
Becoming aware of our cultural dynamics is a difficult task because culture is not conscious to us. Since we are born we have learned to see and do things at an unconscious level. Our experiences, our values and our cultural background lead us to see and do things in a certain way. Sometimes we have to step outside of our cultural boundaries in order to realize the impact that our culture has on our behavior. It is very helpful to gather feedback from foreign colleagues on our behavior to get more clarity on our cultural traits.
They elaborate that cultural awareness is the foundation of communication and it involves the ability of standing back from themselves and becoming aware of their cultural values, beliefs and perceptions. Why do people do things in that way? How do people see the world? Why do people react in that particular way?  Awareness becomes central when people have to interact with people from other cultures. People see, interpret and evaluate things in a different ways. Misinterpretations occur primarily when people lack awareness of their own behavioral rules and project them on others. In absence of better knowledge people tend to assume, instead of finding out what a behavior means to the person involved, e.g. a straight look into someone’s face is regarded as disrespectful in Japan.
           In the globalization era, people live in a multicultural and multilingual world. People who live in a big town will have different ideas looking at things with those who live in small town. By understanding the diversity, everybody can become better citizens. Therefore, they have to identify that through language learning in order that they can easily understand others as well as have better understanding of people’s lifestyle and culture.
            In line with the aim of establishing students’ cultural awareness through reading and appreciating local literature, Fenner (2008) states the following.

The literary text has been greatly underestimated in recent foreign language learning. It represents the personal voice of a culture and, secondly, a voice that young people can easily identify with. The communicative approach to foreign language learning has, to a certain extent, disregarded the literary text as a potential for learning language and encountering the foreign culture. I believe there are three main reasons for this. First, there is the fact that literature is traditionally associated with bourgeois, elitist culture and has been defined by methodologists as an artefact outside the 'real world' of young learners. Secondly, it is due to the way 'culture' was defined in foreign language teaching at the time the communicative approach developed, namely as the everyday lives of representatives of the foreign culture. Focus was thus on how to behave in everyday social situations. Thirdly, part of the reason can be found in prevailing Anglo-American literary theory in the 1960s and 70s, in 'New Criticism', with its focus on the text itself, not on biographical information as previously, nor on the interrelationship between text and reader and the reader as co-producer of meaning. The close reading of 'New Criticism' in the foreign language classroom put too much emphasis on literary analysis of text, and tended to be dominated by the teacher's 'correct' interpretation. Since then literary theory has concentrated increasingly on the reader's creative role in the reading process. When reading is regarded as a communicative dialogue with the text, new opportunities open up in the encounter between two cultures, as reflected in the literary text.
This statement shows that literary works are valuable to develop students’ cultural awareness since literary appreciation focuses on the role of readers in order that they can explore the text as profound as possible and establish both critical thinking and cultural awareness.

The Application of Reader Response Approach toward Local Literature to Establish Critical Thinking and Cultural Awareness
           
            Reader responses have been investigated by several student researchers through experimental and descriptive study after attending literary appreciation and prose class. The class provided them with reader response strategies and visual response symbol as a new paradigm of teaching literature in English education study program. Short stories and drama script are the media used by the student researchers to apply those responses.
            Using some different local literatures, the writer assigned 20 junior high school teachers in Palembang to appreciate the selected short stories by the help of guiding questions and distributing a simple questionnaire to them. They could select one of the local literatures: The Origin of Lake Toba, Rara Jongrang, Malin Kundang, and Bawang merah and Bawang Putih. Most of them choose The Origin of Lake Toba. The following is one of the literary appreciations:

The Origin of Lake Toba

            The characters of the story are Batara Guru Sahara who is emotional, his wife has good character, and his children are very calm, I like Batara’s wife because she is very good person. She helped Batara to be rich person. I think the setting is good and I like it. It is near the river in North Sumatra, although I never come there, but I can see that place by reading the story. I can understand the story.
           
            After reading the story, I found the good and bad action of the character. I dislike the main character and the other characters too because in this story every character just think about their feeling, they don’t care of other and society. I really disagree with their action they hurt other people’s heart and caused the disaster and the people who did not know anything also faced the difficulty.
            As a whole, this story talks about the lucky man who married with a beautiful girl that he found when he was fishing in the lake. The word which is important is “fish.” Why I choose that word because the word “fish” is the first make the main character was lucky man, and married with the fish that became a beautiful girl. And because the word “fish”, big disaster happened. Because the children did something wrong, their father knew and was angry of them. Kicked them and said that they were lazy fish. This made a big disaster.

            Culturally, we know that the young must appreciate the old and the old must love the young.
            I think the author of the story is a good writer. He tried to write this story well. It is a legend told from one generation to next generation although there are some changes in it. This story also tells about the moral values. Children must respect their parents, do what their parents say.
            This appreciation does not cover all the reader responses. There are no connecting and engaging responses. Referring to the table about guiding questions, it can be seen that the teacher can answer all the guiding question items even though the quality of her appreciation is not satisfied. She realized that she never got such appreciation before. If the guiding questions can be answered well, it means that she is able to think critically. How can the teacher build students’ critical thinking if she has never experienced in thinking critically.
            In term of cultural awareness, the teacher failed to develop it. Actually she has to see the differences between the culture posed in the story and her own story. Again, she apologized that she cannot do that. Then she suggested that the writer train the teachers to build critical thinking and cultural awareness. Ultimately, they will do it to their students through reading local literatures.
            Entirely, none of the literary appreciation is conducted well. The 20 teachers found it difficult to develop critical thinking and cultural awareness. It is understandable that these components must be trained though learning process in order that the students are accustomed to appreciate literary works especially local literature as recommended by Schafersman (1991).
            To get information about the establishment of critical thinking and cultural awareness through local literature, a distributed questionnaire presents below.


Table 3. Questionnaire for Teachers
No
Questions
Frequency
(%)


Yes
No
1
Do you like literature?
100
0
2
Have you ever read literary works?
100
0
3
Have you ever read local literature?
100
0
4
Have you ever read English literary works?
100
0
5
Do students need to read English local literature?
100
0
6
Is there English local literature in text book?
100
0
7
Have you ever taught local literature to the students or you neglected it?
95
5
8
Can literature build the students’ critical thinking?
100
0
9
Does KTSP ask teacher to present literature?
85
15
10
Do you have any idea to build students’ critical thinking?
100
0
11
Should literature be taught to students?
100
0
12
Do you know what cultural awareness is?
100
0

            Based on the response to the questionnaire, it can be concluded that teachers know and can identify local literature, critical thinking, and cultural awareness. It is no doubt that the teachers like literature very much.
            The questionnaire also includes five essay questions. The questions are: What local literature written in English that you ever read and taught? How can literature build students’ critical thinking? Why must literature be taught to students? How did you teach literature in your class? What is cultural awareness and how do you build students’ cultural awareness? Qualitatively, they like all kinds of literary works. They ever read local literary works written in English such as Sangkuriang, Malin Kundang, and Bandung Bondowosa and Rara Jongrang. They taught the local literatures to students but they never know reader responses before. Therefore they taught the local literature traditionally by asking them to retell or to summarize as insisted by Rudy (2000). The question about how to build students’ critical thinking through literature is responded that students must be assigned, given stories which are relevant to their daily life, summarize the story, assigned to find folktales, and asked to conclude what has been read. These responses toward those questions cannot be good solution for the students to think critically. As previously cited, critical thinking must be trained though learning process.
            Cultural awareness according to the teacher must be taught so that the students keep taking care of their own culture, recognizing, loving, exploring, being proud of it, reading local literature, and maintaining it. They think that local literature can develop students’ cultural awareness, but they did not explain how to develop it.

Conclusion and Recommendation
            Based on the new curriculum, KTSP, local literature must be used as reading material at schools. The English textbooks provide some local literatures to be learnt by the students to know other culture. By applying reader response approach, teachers are able to build students’ cultural awareness and critical thinking after reading local literature. The teachers know these two issues, but they cannot build them to their own students.
Local literatures are valuable to develop students’ cultural awareness since literary appreciation focuses on the role of readers. The students can explore the literary text as profound as possible and by reading local literature, the establishment of critical thinking can be emerged.
It is recommended that an investigation be conducted. An experimental study on the effectiveness of reader response approach to build critical thinking and cultural awareness can be implemented since reader response approach, as has been investigated by many researchers, can develop students’ literary appreciation and language skills. Other recommendations are to do a survey on how teachers build their students’ critical thinking and cultural awareness through literature and to do a correlation study among reader response approach, critical thinking, and cultural awareness.

REFERENCES
Alwasilah, A. Chaedar. 2002. “Memanusiakan Ilmu Bahasa.”Pikiran Rakyat. Bandung, 22 Juni 2002.
Badan Standar Nasional pendidikan (BNSP). 2006. Panduan Penyusunan Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan Jenjang Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah. Jakarta.
Barr, R. et al. 1991. Handbook of Reading Research. Vol. II. London: Longman.
Beach, Richard. 1993. A Teacher’s Introduction to Reader Response Theories. Urbana, IL: NCTE
Beach, R.W. & J.D. Marshall. 1991. Teaching Literature in the Secondary School. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.
Farrell, E.J. & J.R. Squire (Editor). 1990. Transactions with Literature: A Fifty-Year Perspectives. Urbana, IL: NCTE.
Fenner, Brit-Anne. 2000. “Cultural Awareness.” Approaches to Materials Design in European Textbooks. Available: http://www.tesol-pain.org/newsletter/insitescultural.html, accessed March 20, 2008.
Harras, Kholid A. 2003. “Sejumlah Masalah Pengajaran Sastra.” Bahasa dan Sastra: Jurnal Pendidikan Bahasa, Sastra, dan Pengajarannya. Vol. 3 No. 4.
Ho, B. 1988. Dalam Hong, Chua Seok. The Reader Response Approach to the Teaching of Literature.Available: htpp://eduweb.nie.edu.sg/REACTOId/1997/1/6.html.
Hong, Chua Seok. 1997. The Reader Response Approach to the Teaching of Literature.Tersedia: htpp://eduweb.nie.edu.sg/REACTOId/1997/1/6.html.
Moody, H.L.B. 1971. The Teaching of Literature. London: Longman Group, Ltd.
Mulyana. Yoyo. 2000. Keefektifan Model Mengajar Respons pembaca dalam Pengajaran Pengkajian Puisi; Studi Eksperimen pada Mahasiswa Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra Indonesia FPBS IKIP Bandung, TA 1998/1999. Disertasi. Bandung: PPS UPI.
Purves, Alan C. dkk. 1990. How Porcupines Make Love II: Teaching a Response-Centered Literature Curriculum. New York: Longman Group, Ltd.
Quappe, Stephanie  and G. Cantatore. 2008. What is Cultural Awareness, anyway? How do I build it? Available: http://www.culturosity.com/articles/whatisculturalawareness.htm
Rosenblatt, Louise M. 1978. The Reader, the Text, the Poem: The Transactional Theory of the Literary Work. Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press
Rudy, Rita Inderawati. 2000. “Responding through Visual Symbols: How Literature Instruction Survives in the Great Big World of Tests.” Makalah. Dipresentasikan di Konferensi Nasional III, Testing and Evaluation in the Context of Undergraduate ELT in Indonesia, di ITB Bandung, 22-24 Februari 2000.
Rudy, Rita Inderawati. 2001. Literature Instruction in EFL Classrooms: An Ethnographic Study of Promoting Students’ Literary Appreciation and language Skills at the English Department of UPI Bandung. Thesis. Bandung:PPS UPI.
Rudy, Rita Inderawati. 2005a. “’Rabun Sastra’: Tanggung Jawab FPBS-kah?” Prosiding Seminar Nasional Pemacu Prestasi dan Prestise Alumni FPBS UPI dan Program Studi Pengajaran Bahasa Indonesia PPs UPI. Bandung: Penerbit Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra Indonesia FPBS UPI
Rudy, Rita Inderawati. 2005b. “Keefektifan Model Respons Pembaca dan Simbol Visual dalam Pembelajaran Sastra di SD.” Makalah. Dipresentasikan dalam Konferensi Internasional Himpunan Sarjana-Kesusasteraan Indonesia (HISKI) XVI di Palembang, 18-21 Agustus 2005.
Rudy, Rita Inderawati. 2006. The Enlightenment of Literature Instruction at Language Education. Makalah. Dipresentasikan dalam The Stadium Generale di JPBS FKIP Universitas Sriwijaya tanggal 13 Februari 2006. Palembang.

Rudy, Rita Inderawati. 2007. Appreciating Literary Works: An Alternative Way of Building nation and Strengthening Its Literacy. A Paper presented at Comparative Education International Conference (CESA) at Hongkong University, January 2007.

Rudy, Rita Inderawati. 2007. Web-based Literature: Displaying Students’ Response to Short Story. A paper presented in TEFLIN International Conference at Universitas Islam Negeri Jakarta, 4-6 December 2007.
Schafersman, Steven D. 1991. An Introduction to Critical Thinking. Available: http://www.studygs.net/crtthk.htm.
Sudarwati and E. Grace. 2007. Look Ahead: An English Course for Senior High School Students Year X. Jakarta: Penerbit Erlangga.

0 Komentar:

Poskan Komentar

Berlangganan Poskan Komentar [Atom]

<< Beranda